India and China have always had border disputes which have created tensions between both nations. China’s new land border laws are a concern to India and have caused tension on the borders of Arunachal Pradesh now.
Storyline And Summary
India and China have stayed engaged in a military standoff for approximately 18 months in Ladakh. Some agreements have been made to make situations peaceful. Nevertheless, armed preparedness has always been very high on both sides. The military is always prepared and alert on both ends. A fresh irritant has cropped out between the two nations and this has given rise to new stresses for India.
William Dalrymple, a Scottish historian, has written several books on Indian history. He has shared an article stating he predicts India and China will have six wars in the next 50 years.
Chinese Expand Territory Within Boundaries Of India
China also possesses the Aksai-Chin that was originally a part of India. China is also in possession of a 2000-5000sq km area in the Union Territory of Ladakh Saksgam valley handed over by Pakistan via an agreement in 1963. China stakes claim over certain areas in Uttarakhand, the middle sector.
The new land border law calls for military action in all three sections of India’s border with China. The third war in the Chinese blueprint of the future will be over Arunachal Pradesh. Anytime between 2035-2040 is the predicted time frame. A war might break out between India and China. This is a new headache for India.
The new land border law comes into force on 1 January 2022. There is no indication yet that the ongoing military standoff in Ladakh will resolve within the next two months. Thus the coming year can pose a threat and new headache for India on the Chinese front. China continues to stay in the regions of Hot spring, Demchok, and Depsang plains of Ladakh and requires India to keep troops of soldiers to patrol the borders.
China’s Pact With Bhutan
China has also signed a memorandum of understanding with Bhutan, which has not instituted formal diplomatic relations with the country. Bhutan has been one of the closest allies of India, which intervened on its behalf as per bilateral agreement when China moved into the Doklam area of the Himalayan country in 2017. China hailed the MoU seeing it as an opportunity to resolve its territorial and border issues with Bhutan. The Chinese parliament passed a land border law that safeguards territorial integrity and land boundaries. This law calls for the Xi Jinping government to take appropriate measures to strengthen border defense and enhance economic and social development. It also requires opening up border areas, encouraging and supporting people’s life and work there, and improving public services and infrastructure in such areas. However, that law also demands that principles of equality, mutual trust, friendly consultation must be observed and to handle land border-related affairs with neighboring countries through negotiations and correctly resolve disputes in these zones. Peace should be maintained.
Border Management; India – China
This indicates that the Chinese PLA (People’s Liberation Army) has been granted authority and do whatever is required to complete the territorial map of China as the Chinese Communist Party claims to be its territorial expanse.
The new land law is not specifically meant for the border of India. However, the 3488 km boundary still remains disputed. Some experts feel it can cause more problems ahead in the future.
Lt Gen D S Hooda, responsible for the Line Of Control in Ladakh, said that the new law gives the responsibility of the border clearly to the PLA as opposed to us, with a lack of clarity on who among Ministries of Home and Defence is responsible for border management. The PLA is now bound to protect the integrity, the sovereignty of the border, and saying that we are going to pull out from A, B, C, D areas will make this a lot more difficult, he states overall. “It will make negotiations more difficult, a pullout from balance areas less likely,” Lt Gen Hooda said.
Model Border Villages
China has been building Well off border defense villages across the LAC in all sectors. President Xi Jinping visited a village in Tibet near the border along with Arunachal Pradesh in July this year. Even before the law was announced, commander Lt Gen Manoj Pande who is responsible for the 1346 km LAC from Sikkim to Arunachal Pradesh had said that the dual ( civil and military) use of border villages is a concern for India.
“According to their own policy or strategy, model villages have come up near the border. In what quantity people have settled there is a different question. But for us, it is a matter of concern how they will dual civil and military uses of these facilities and villages. And we have taken note of it in our operational planning” Lt Gen Pande said. He also states, “China always has been using the civil population to reinforce their claims”. He mentioned in Demchok where some so-called civilians have pitched tents on the Indian side of the LAC and the issues are yet to be resolved.
He added, “If China starts having settled population on the other side invading across what India feels is its border when you start discussing the border between two sides, they will say China has settled population in this area”.
These are a few concerns India is facing over the border with its neighboring country China. China is encroaching upon land and territories within the boundaries of India and causing tensions. India and China have been having border disputes for years. India-China border clash explained above. It is also predicted that India and China will go to war over border disputes.
China Continues To Expand Its Territory Within Boundaries Of India
Aksai Chin is already under the control of China. Now, China also claims to take over Arunachal Pradesh stating that it’s a part of South Tibet and thus, creating tensions for India at the border. This has resulted in a new headache for India in the upcoming years. Both nations have a powerfully equipped and armed military safeguarding their respective borders. The new land law has created tensions for India. Due to this, India’s border is facing security threats. China continues to bully its neighboring regions. It will create lots of tensions along the India-China border.
The Indian government said it was concerned that China’s new land law boundary law could affect ongoing border tensions between the two countries calling the legislation a “unilateral move”.
The Foreign Ministry reported on Wednesday that the new law passed by China on 23 October would not have a bearing on bilateral arrangements agreed between both countries such as the Line Of Actual control along their shared border near the Himalayas. “We also expect that China will avoid undertaking action under the pretext of this law which could unilaterally alter the situation in India-China border areas,” the ministry said in the statement.
Though there are ongoing border disputes with India, China has passed a new law that further strengthens the security of its borders. Thus, India – China faceoff can be explained. This new land law will create tensions for India along the borders. Thus India is concerned over China’s new laws for land borders.